HttpClient、okhttp和RestTemplate的区别

一、HttpClient

1、pom依赖

<!--HttpClient-->
<dependency>
    <groupId>commons-httpclient</groupId>
    <artifactId>commons-httpclient</artifactId>
    <version>3.1</version>
</dependency>

2、HttpClient代码实现

public class HttpClientUtil {
    /**
     * httpClient的get请求方式
     * 使用GetMethod来访问一个URL对应的网页实现步骤:
     * 1.生成一个HttpClient对象并设置相应的参数;
     * 2.生成一个GetMethod对象并设置响应的参数;
     * 3.用HttpClient生成的对象来执行GetMethod生成的Get方法;
     * 4.处理响应状态码;
     * 5.若响应正常,处理HTTP响应内容;
     * 6.释放连接。
     * @param url
     * @param charset
     * @return
     */
    public static String doGet(String url, String charset) {
        //1.生成HttpClient对象并设置参数
        HttpClient httpClient = new HttpClient();
        //设置Http连接超时为5秒
        httpClient.getHttpConnectionManager().getParams().setConnectionTimeout(5000);
        //2.生成GetMethod对象并设置参数
        GetMethod getMethod = new GetMethod(url);
        //设置get请求超时为5秒
        getMethod.getParams().setParameter(HttpMethodParams.SO_TIMEOUT, 5000);
        //设置请求重试处理,用的是默认的重试处理:请求三次
        getMethod.getParams().setParameter(HttpMethodParams.RETRY_HANDLER, new DefaultHttpMethodRetryHandler());
        String response = "";
        //3.执行HTTP GET 请求
        try {
            int statusCode = httpClient.executeMethod(getMethod);
            //4.判断访问的状态码
            if (statusCode != HttpStatus.SC_OK) {
                System.err.println("请求出错:" + getMethod.getStatusLine());
            }
            //5.处理HTTP响应内容
            //HTTP响应头部信息,这里简单打印
            Header[] headers = getMethod.getResponseHeaders();
            for(Header h : headers) {
                System.out.println(h.getName() + "---------------" + h.getValue());
            }
            //读取HTTP响应内容,这里简单打印网页内容
            //读取为字节数组
            byte[] responseBody = getMethod.getResponseBody();
            response = new String(responseBody, charset);
            System.out.println("-----------response:" + response);
            //读取为InputStream,在网页内容数据量大时候推荐使用
            //InputStream response = getMethod.getResponseBodyAsStream();
        } catch (HttpException e) {
            //发生致命的异常,可能是协议不对或者返回的内容有问题
            System.out.println("请检查输入的URL!");
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            //发生网络异常
            System.out.println("发生网络异常!");
        } finally {
            //6.释放连接
            getMethod.releaseConnection();
        }
        return response;
    }

    /**
     * post请求
     * @param url
     * @param json
     * @return
     */
    public static String doPost(String url, JSONObject json){
        HttpClient httpClient = new HttpClient();
        PostMethod postMethod = new PostMethod(url);

        postMethod.addRequestHeader("accept", "*/*");
        postMethod.addRequestHeader("connection", "Keep-Alive");
        //设置json格式传送
        postMethod.addRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/json;charset=GBK");
        //必须设置下面这个Header
        postMethod.addRequestHeader("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/58.0.3029.81 Safari/537.36");
        //添加请求参数
        postMethod.addParameter("commentId", json.getString("commentId"));

        String res = "";
        try {
            int code = httpClient.executeMethod(postMethod);
            if (code == 200){
                res = postMethod.getResponseBodyAsString();
                System.out.println(res);
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return res;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println(doGet("http://tcc.taobao.com/cc/json/mobile_tel_segment.htm?tel=13026194071", "GBK"));
        System.out.println("-----------分割线------------");
        System.out.println("-----------分割线------------");
        System.out.println("-----------分割线------------");

        JSONObject jsonObject = new JSONObject();
        jsonObject.put("commentId", "13026194071");
        System.out.println(doPost("http://tcc.taobao.com/cc/json/mobile_tel_segment.htm?tel=13026194071", jsonObject));
    }
}

3、建议

代码复杂,还得操心资源回收等。代码很复杂,冗余代码多,不建议直接使用。

二、okhttp

1、简介

OkHttp是一个高效的HTTP客户端,允许所有同一个主机地址的请求共享同一个socket连接;连接池减少请求延时;透明的GZIP压缩减少响应数据的大小;缓存响应内容,避免一些完全重复的请求

当网络出现问题的时候OkHttp依然坚守自己的职责,它会自动恢复一般的连接问题,如果你的服务有多个IP地址,当第一个IP请求失败时,OkHttp会交替尝试你配置的其他IPOkHttp使用现代TLS技术(SNI, ALPN)初始化新的连接,当握手失败时会回退到TLS 1.0

2、pom依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.squareup.okhttp3</groupId>
    <artifactId>okhttp</artifactId>
    <version>3.10.0</version>
</dependency>

它的请求/响应 API 使用构造器模式builders来设计,它支持阻塞式的同步请求和带回调的异步请求。

3、配置文件

@Configuration
public class OkHttpConfig {
    @Bean
    public OkHttpClient okHttpClient() {
        return new OkHttpClient.Builder()
                //.sslSocketFactory(sslSocketFactory(), x509TrustManager())
                .retryOnConnectionFailure(false)
                .connectionPool(pool())
                .connectTimeout(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
                .readTimeout(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
                .writeTimeout(30,TimeUnit.SECONDS)
                .build();
    }

    @Bean
    public X509TrustManager x509TrustManager() {
        return new X509TrustManager() {
            @Override
            public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] x509Certificates, String s) throws CertificateException {
            }
            @Override
            public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] x509Certificates, String s) throws CertificateException {
            }
            @Override
            public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
                return new X509Certificate[0];
            }
        };
    }

    @Bean
    public SSLSocketFactory sslSocketFactory() {
        try {
            //信任任何链接
            SSLContext sslContext = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS");
            sslContext.init(null, new TrustManager[]{x509TrustManager()}, new SecureRandom());
            return sslContext.getSocketFactory();
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (KeyManagementException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Create a new connection pool with tuning parameters appropriate for a single-user application.
     * The tuning parameters in this pool are subject to change in future OkHttp releases. Currently
     */
    @Bean
    public ConnectionPool pool() {
        return new ConnectionPool(200, 5, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
    }
}

4、客户端工具

@Slf4j
public class OkHttpClient {
    private static final MediaType JSON = MediaType.parse("application/json; charset=utf-8");

    private volatile static okhttp3.OkHttpClient client;

    private static final int MAX_IDLE_CONNECTION = Integer
            .parseInt(ConfigManager.get("httpclient.max_idle_connection"));

    private static final long KEEP_ALIVE_DURATION = Long
            .parseLong(ConfigManager.get("httpclient.keep_alive_duration"));

    private static final long CONNECT_TIMEOUT = Long.parseLong(ConfigManager.get("httpclient.connectTimeout"));

    private static final long READ_TIMEOUT = Long.parseLong(ConfigManager.get("httpclient. "));

    /**
     * 单例模式(双重检查模式) 获取类实例 
     *
     * @return client
     */
    private static okhttp3.OkHttpClient getInstance() {
        if (client == null) {
            synchronized (okhttp3.OkHttpClient.class) {
                if (client == null) {
                    client = new okhttp3.OkHttpClient.Builder()
                            .connectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
                            .readTimeout(READ_TIMEOUT, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
                            .connectionPool(new ConnectionPool(MAX_IDLE_CONNECTION, KEEP_ALIVE_DURATION,
                                    TimeUnit.MINUTES))
                            .build();
                }
            }
        }
        return client;
    }

    public static String syncPost(String url, String json) throws IOException {
        RequestBody body = RequestBody.create(JSON, json);
        Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .url(url)
                .post(body)
                .build();
        try {
            Response response = OkHttpClient.getInstance().newCall(request).execute();
            if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                String result = response.body().string();
                log.info("syncPost response = {}, responseBody= {}", response, result);
                return result;
            }
            String result = response.body().string();
            log.info("syncPost response = {}, responseBody= {}", response, result);
            throw new IOException("三方接口返回http状态码为" + response.code());
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("syncPost() url:{} have a ecxeption {}", url, e);
            throw new RuntimeException("syncPost() have a ecxeption {}" + e.getMessage());
        }
    }

    public static String syncGet(String url, Map<String, Object> headParamsMap) throws IOException {
        Request request;
        final Request.Builder builder = new Request.Builder().url(url);
        try {
            if (!CollectionUtils.isEmpty(headParamsMap)) {
                final Iterator<Map.Entry<String, Object>> iterator = headParamsMap.entrySet()
                        .iterator();
                while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                    final Map.Entry<String, Object> entry = iterator.next();
                    builder.addHeader(entry.getKey(), (String) entry.getValue());
                }
            }
            request = builder.build();
            Response response = OkHttpClient.getInstance().newCall(request).execute();
            String result = response.body().string();
            log.info("syncGet response = {},responseBody= {}", response, result);
            if (!response.isSuccessful()) {
                throw new IOException("三方接口返回http状态码为" + response.code());
            }
            return result;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("remote interface url:{} have a ecxeption {}", url, e);
            throw new RuntimeException("三方接口返回异常");
        }
    }

}

三、RestTemplate

1、pom依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

2、get请求(不带参的即把参数取消即可)

// 1-getForObject()
User user1 = this.restTemplate.getForObject(uri, User.class);

// 2-getForEntity()
ResponseEntity<User> responseEntity1 = this.restTemplate.getForEntity(uri, User.class);
HttpStatus statusCode = responseEntity1.getStatusCode();
HttpHeaders header = responseEntity1.getHeaders();
User user2 = responseEntity1.getBody();
  
// 3-exchange()
RequestEntity requestEntity = RequestEntity.get(new URI(uri)).build();
ResponseEntity<User> responseEntity2 = this.restTemplate.exchange(requestEntity, User.class);
User user3 = responseEntity2.getBody();

方式一:

Notice notice = restTemplate.getForObject("http://fantj.top/notice/list/{1}/{2}"
                , Notice.class,1,5);

方式二:

Map<String,String> map = new HashMap();
map.put("start","1");
map.put("page","5");
Notice notice = restTemplate.getForObject("http://fantj.top/notice/list/"
        , Notice.class,map);

3、post请求

// 1-postForObject()
User user1 = this.restTemplate.postForObject(uri, user, User.class);

// 2-postForEntity()
ResponseEntity<User> responseEntity1 = this.restTemplate.postForEntity(uri, user, User.class);

// 3-exchange()
RequestEntity<User> requestEntity = RequestEntity.post(new URI(uri)).body(user);
ResponseEntity<User> responseEntity2 = this.restTemplate.exchange(requestEntity, User.class);

方式一:

String url = "http://demo/api/book/";
HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
MediaType type = MediaType.parseMediaType("application/json; charset=UTF-8");
headers.setContentType(type);
String requestJson = "{...}";
HttpEntity<String> entity = new HttpEntity<String>(requestJson,headers);
String result = restTemplate.postForObject(url, entity, String.class);
System.out.println(result);

方式二:

@Test
public void rtPostObject(){
    RestTemplate restTemplate = new RestTemplate();
    String url = "http://47.xxx.xxx.96/register/checkEmail";
    HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
    headers.setContentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_FORM_URLENCODED);
    MultiValueMap<String, String> map= new LinkedMultiValueMap<>();
    map.add("email", "844072586@qq.com");
 
    HttpEntity<MultiValueMap<String, String>> request = new HttpEntity<>(map, headers);
    ResponseEntity<String> response = restTemplate.postForEntity( url, request , String.class );
    System.out.println(response.getBody());
}
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